Volkswagen Beetle 1967 for DAZ Studio

Volkswagen Beetle 1967 for DAZ Studio

The Volkswagen Beetle, officially the Volkswagen Type 1,is a small car produced by the German company Volkswagen from 1938 to 2003.[b] It is one of the most iconic cars in automotive history, recognized for its distinctive shape. Its production period of 65 years is the longest of any single generation of automobile,[c] and its total production of over 21.5 million is the most of any car of a single platform.

The Beetle was conceived in the early 1930s. The leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, decided there was a need for a people's carto serve Germany's new road network, the Reichsautobahn. The German engineer Ferdinand Porsche and his design team began developing and designing the car in the early 1930s. But the fundamental design concept can be attributed to B la Bar nyi in 1925, predating Porsche'sclaims by over five years. The result was the Volkswagen Type 1 and the introduction of the Volkswagen brand. Volkswagen initially slated production for the late 1930s, but the outbreak of war in 1939 meant that production was delayed until the war had ended. The car was originally called the Volkswagen Type 1 and marketed simply as the Volkswagen, but it was not until 1968 that it was officially named the "Beetle".

Volkswagen implemented designations for the Beetle in the 1960s, including 1200, 1300, 1500, 1600, 1302 and 1303. Volkswagen introduced a series of large luxury models throughout the 1960 and 70s comprising the Type 3, Type 4 and the K70 to supplement the Beetle, but none of these models achieved the level of success that it did. Rapidly changing consumer preferences toward front-wheel drive compact hatchbacks in Europe prompted Volkswagen's gradual shift away from rear-wheel drive, starting with the Golf in 1974. In the late 1970s and 80s, Japanese automakers began to dominate the market, which contributed to the Beetle's declining popularity.

Over its lifespan, the Beetle's design remained consistent, yet Volkswagen implemented over 78,000 incremental updates. These modifications were often subtle, involving minor alterations to its exterior, interior, colors, and lighting. Some more noteworthy changes included the introduction of new engines, models and systems, such as improved technology or comfort.

In May 1934, at a meeting at Berlin's Kaiserhof Hotel, Hitler insisted on a vehicle that could accommodate two adults and three children while not using more than seven liters of fuel per 100 km (32 mpg US/39 mpg UK). All components were designed for a quick and inexpensive part exchange. As Hitler explained, the rationale for opting for an air-cooled engine was the lack of a garage for every country doctor. On 22 June 1934, Ferdinand Porsche received a development contract from the Verband der Automobilindustrie (German Association of the Automotive Industry) for the prototype of an inexpensive and economical passenger car after the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, decided there was a need for a people's car a car affordable and practical enough for lower-class people to own to serve the country's new road network, the Reichsautobahn. Although the Volkswagen Beetle was primarily the conception of Porsche and Hitler, the idea of a "people's car" is much older than Nazism and has existed since the introduction of automotive mass-producing.

Originally designated as the Type 60 by Porsche, the Beetle project involved a team of designers and engineers comprising Erwin Komenda, who specialized in the bodywork; Josef Kales, responsible for the engine design; Karl Rabe, serving as the chief engineer; and Josef Mickl and Franz Xaver Reimspiess, the latter credited for devising the iconic Volkswagen badge. The project saw significant milestones in October 1935 with the completion of the first two Type-60 prototypes, identified as cars V1 (sedan) and V2 (convertible), denoted with a "V" signifying its status as a test car. The testing of three additional V3 prototypes began on 11 July 1936, the first of which was driven to Obersalzberg and inspected by Hitler. Two V3s were delivered to Berlin in August for examination by other Nazi Party officials, who showed great interest in them. By June 1936, the V3s underwent over 50,000 km (31,000 mi) of testing across various terrains. A series of thirty W30 development models, commissioned by Porsche and manufactured by Daimler-Benz, underwent testing in early April 1937, covering a total distance of over 2,900,000 kilometers (1,800,000 mi). All vehicles featured the characteristic rounded design and included air-cooled, rear-mounted engines.A further batch of 44 VW38 pre-production cars produced in 1938 introduced split rear windows,and subsequently, Volkswagen introduced fifty VW39 cars, completed in July 1939

Kraft durch Freude was in charge of this project. Robert Ley, a Nazi official, announced in 1938 that every German would own a Volkswagen within ten years. However, there were challenges. Gasoline prices in Germany were high due to taxes, making it expensive for private car ownership. Gasoline was also primarily used for the military in the Nazi regime. Despite that, the Nazi leaders saw the mass-produced car as a way to promote their system. It symbolized a shift from cars being a privilege for the wealthy to a dream that lower-class Germans could now fulfill. Hitler was particularly enthusiastic about it because the car could easily be adapted for military use.

The KdF-Wagen was not series-produced before the Second World War because the Volkswagen plant near Fallersleben (now a district of Wolfsburg), founded in May 1938, was not yet finished. During the war, other German manufacturers were concurrently producing military vehicles and armaments, so the series production of the then-called Volkswagen car could not begin until the end of the war. By the close of 1945, 1,785 Volkswagens were built and delivered to the occupying powers and the Deutsche Post.

The Beetle featured a rear-located, air-cooled four-cylinder, boxer engine and rear-wheel drive in a two-door bodywork featuring a flat front windscreen, accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat, and it has a drag coefficient of 0.48. The bodywork attached with eighteen bolts to the Beetle's nearly flat platform chassis featured a central structural tunnel. The front and rear suspension incorporated torsion bars and a front stabilizer bar, providing independent suspension at all wheels, albeit the front axle was designed with double longitudinal trailing arms, whereas the rear axle was a swing axle. Light alloy forms the Beetle's engine, transmission, and cylinder heads.

German-Bohemian Ferdinand Porsche (1875 1951) and his team were generally known as the original designers of the Volkswagen.[32] However, there has been debate over whether he was the original designer. rumors circulated, suggesting that other designers, such as B la Bar nyi, Paul Jaray, Josef Ganz and Hans Ledwinka, may have influenced its design.

B la Bar nyi
In 1925, Austro-Hungarian automotive engineer B la Bar nyi designed a car similarly shaped to the Beetle, more than five years before Porsche unveiled his initial "People's Car" design. Through a court ruling in 1953, Bar nyi successfully asserted his authorship and associated claims. He explained that he had previously elucidated the concept of the Beetle, which was already formulated in the 1920s, to Porsche in great detail. However, this concept was not protected sufficiently by patents. Key elements of this concept included the air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine at the rear, the transmission positioned in front of the rear axle, and the distinctive roundish shape. Dieter Landenberger, the head of Porsche's historical archive, later affirmed that Bar nyi played a "decisive role in the authorship of the later VW Beetle". Since then, he has been known for conceiving the original car design.

Paul Jaray
Many assume that Paul Jaray shaped the car's body design through his aerodynamics calculations.According to a November 2021 update of research mentioned in the fifteenth report by the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Jaray's findings influenced the design of "Hitler's streamlined KdF car", later known as the 'beetle', which became the best-selling car globally post-war. Jaray's research results in fluid mechanics for ground-bound vehicles extended beyond the VW Beetle, impacting the Tatra 77 and other vehicles. His initial patents and publications date back to the early 1920s. The engineer Christian Binnebesel scientifically presented Jaray's significant contribution to streamline form in his 2008 dissertation.

Josef Ganz
Josef Ganz's potential early contributions to the original Beetle's development remained controversial for years and lacked clear clarification. Research suggests that his idea and the concept of a compact car played a significant role in the VW Beetle's development and its prototypes. Ganz personally drove a Hanomag Kommissbrot and a swing-axle Tatra both featuring elements such as a central tubular frame, independent wheel suspension, and a rear/mid-engine design. Ganz incorporated these technical features into his proposed vehicle designs. Hitler reportedly saw cars designed by Josef Ganz at the 1933 Berlin Auto Show. The Standard Superior, designed by Ganz for the Standard vehicle factory, featured an implied teardrop-shaped body on a central tubular frame with a rear swing axle, yet the engine was transversely installed in front of the axle, not longitudinally as a rear engine.

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This pack for Daz Studio contains a Volkswagen Beetle 1967 with lights and textures included.
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